Across the world’s urban areas, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to providing sanitation. In many cities, citizens rely on ‘non-networked sanitation services’, usually small businesses – such as sludge-sucking machine operators – that empty latrines and then pass the waste on to the other players in the ‘sanitation chain’ that remove and dispose of effluent. 

In this blog from the World Bank, they share 5 lessons learned from city studies which need to be addressed if these types of services, on which so many millions of people rely, are to be effectively managed. 

Photo credit: Sustainable sanitation via / CC BY-SA